ISSN: 1304-7191 | E-ISSN: 1304-7205
Cost and duration estimation of autonomous grading algorithm by simulation
1Department of Civil Engineering, İnönü University, Malatya, 44280, Türkiye
Sigma J Eng Nat Sci 2024; 42(3): 831-844 DOI: 10.14744/sigma.2024.00074
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Estimation of cost and duration of grading a particular area provides important information for contractors and construction machine manufacturers. In this study, cost and duration of excavation by dozer is estimated by simulating the movements of the dozer. Specifications of the dozer, soil conditions and site conditions are defined to the simulator. The simulation considers tire penetration, rolling, grade, hauling, as well as cutting resistances and estimates the necessary force to be applied. The simulation implements an autonomous grading algo-rithm established for electric powered dozers which starts grading from a local highest point to prevent uphill excavation and hauling. The algorithm determines the necessary maneuvers to reach local highest point, excavate or haul the earth pile to the dump area. The simulation runs until the objected elevation is obtained at each portion of the excavation site. The simu-lator calculates the consumed energy, time, and total cost of the excavation. The excavations of 30x45 square meter area by one existing electric dozer and five updated versions of it are simulated. The simulation of the excavation is computed in 23 seconds for the smallest and 10 seconds for the largest dozer. The cost of grading and pushing the excavated material at most 20 meters away is estimated as less than 5 cents/m3 for the lead-acid battery powered dozer and 8 cents/m3 in the average for the lithium-ion battery powered dozers. The simulation revealed that electric powered dozers have less unit excavation cost than diesel powered ones, also larger dozers consumes less energy than the smaller ones. The developed simulation tech-nique is implemented without any numerical errors and the technique can be beneficial for the construction machine manufacturers to optimize their designs and for the contractors to select the most suitable construction machine among the present alternatives.